Improving Value By Adding Safety

Everything counts in large amounts – Depeche Mode

It’s hard to be flawless in human endeavors. You can bowl a perfect game, throw one in baseball, or get the equivalent in the NFL if your quarterback rating hits 158.3. Athletes who reach high performance levels get rewarded handsomely.

Hypernomics finds there is money in approaching perfection in transportation, too. In 2019, the National Safety Council found the lifetime odds of dying was 1 in 543 as a pedestrian and 1 in 107 in a car crash. But the NSC found the chances of dying in a plane crash too low to calculate.

The Tupolev Tu-204 series (A) has an excellent safety record. It holds more passengers than the Boeing 737 NextGen line (B) and goes faster. But it sells for less than NextGen and has made far fewer sales.

While Boeing’s huge network figures into these results, so, too, does its outstanding safety record. As we see in C, the B737-800 has greater than an order of magnitude reduction in hull losses than the Tu-204. It’s better than its predecessor, the B737-500. It took Boeing time and effort to get that safe. Now they are reaping the rewards.

You may not attain perfection, but it pays to try.

#hypernomics #innovation #businessintelligence #safety #sales

Paying for High Ground

You can observe a lot by just watching – Yogi Berra

My wife, mother-in-law, and I took a cruise on the Danube and Rhine rivers a few years ago and saw several castles along the way. Scaling one with a tour guide, we noticed there were remote towers of the same construction in different directions atop nearby hills. I asked if they were part of the same realm. Sure, the guide said, that’s how they got early warnings back then.

What will someone pay to increase their field of view? Hypernomics provides us insight.

Global Hawk (A) is the most expensive Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) in the United States inventory. With a flyaway cost of $147M, we’ve managed to buy 42 of them. We’ve also bought 40 of the Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) IIR (B) at $156M apiece. What a coincidence!

Or is it?

We plot quantities and prices for UAVs and civilian satellites in C. While UAVs surveil or attack, satellites not belonging solely to the military survey the weather (GOES and NOAA) or offer positions (GPS) or communications (Starlink). Note UAVs and satellites abide by the same Demand Frontier. Our readiness to buy them goes to a point along that curve and stops there. I wonder where watchtowers lie.

#hypernomics #markets #innovation #sales #demand

Cost in Space

The impossible happens all the time – Will Robinson, Lost In Space 2018 TV series

Want to be an astronaut? If you’d like to do that for NASA, it’s nearly impossible. Need to swing the odds in your favor? Now you can.

Hypernomics says, if you can’t beat the game, change it.

Several firms are doing just that right now. Virgin Galactic (A) has booked 600 people to take 2 to 3-hour rides that will, for a few minutes, surpass the Karman Line, 100 km above sea level, which defines the boundary of Space. That goes for $250K/person.

Perhaps you’d like to go higher and longer. For about $28M/person, you can book a ride up to the ISS for a week or so with Space Adventures (B), return flight included. The same company has secured two unnamed travelers to a lunar orbit mission (C) for $167M. As D reveals, these missions lie on the same Demand line.

E reveals the Apollo 10 lunar orbit was costly, about $1B/seat in today’s dollars. As the industry got smarter, costs fell. Note in E that 3 seats in the Soyuz capsule fell on virtually the same Demand line as that for commercial Space in D, as will the 6 places aboard the Space Dragon from SpaceX (E’s slope is almost unchanged from D, the intercept went up by 3.3%).

#hypernomics #markets #innovation #sales #demand

Triple Limited Demand

And he writhed inside at what seemed the cruelty and unfairness of the demand – C.L. Lewis.

Many products sink due to scarce sales. Uninspected, market boundaries seem murky.

Hypernomics can project at least three demand limits before entry, reducing the chance of overreach.

Pilatus makes the PC-12. It’s the best-selling business aircraft model (1st limit). Part of its appeal is that, by some measures (not shown), it sells for less than what it could command. The relatively low price boosts sales and shapes the statistically significant (P-value 1.5%) Outer Demand Frontier, a saturation limit the market collectively creates.

In 1981 car buyers revealed a Product Demand Curve (P-value 2.00E-05), a term applied to all models (2nd limit). If a given model were popular enough (as the Porsche 911C and BMW 528i), it would eventually find itself limited by the Upper Demand Frontier (P-value 0.01%), as it helps form a communal price limitation.

If a Product Demand (Price) Curve is steeper (more negative) than its related Unit (Recurring) Cost Curve, they may eventually intersect. If cost >= price, a line stops, as it is no longer be profitable, as was the case for the Ford Model T (3rd limit).

#hypernomics #markets #innovation #sales #demand

Interactive Redundancy

Redundancy is ambiguous because it seems like a waste if nothing unusual happens. Except that something unusual happens-usually. – Nassim Nicholas Taleb

Life assures little.

Recognizing that, many create contingency plans. Backup aircraft flight controls systems and duplicative car safety features save lives. Emergency generators keep hospital lights on.

As history shows judges favor local athletes, many sports force even-handed results through mandated redundancy. In A, only three of the seven scores will count for the diver (B).

Rather than rely on a single Value estimate, Hypernomics takes redundant cuts at market reactions. In C, the general aviation aircraft market values horsepower and speed. However, those features correlate with one another. We can use that to our advantage. Equations 1 and 2 use horsepower to drive Value. The 3rd equation uses speed. Equation 4 combines them. Various groupings of valued traits should be tested, with outlying results discarded as in diving.

Excel has many handy controls in its Developer menu. In C, Scroll Bars drive inputs for Equations 1-4, letting users place products in market gaps interactively, in the manner of my most recent post.

#hypernomics #markets #innovation #sales #technology

Gap Maps

If everybody else is doing it one way, there’s a good chance you can find your niche by going in exactly the opposite direction – Sam Walton.

Lots of people will tell you to discover your niche. What if you could map it?

Hypernomics shows you how.

On September 16, 1893, tens of thousands sought such openings in the 4th Oklahoma Land Rush as guns went off at noon, signaling the crowd the game was on. Those who waited for the cannons were “Boomers” (A), but many “Sooners” jumped the gun and got some of the best plots in the Cherokee Outlet’s eastern part. As many would discover, its western end was prone to drought and later formed part of the Dust Bowl with a moving Frontier (B). Figuring which tracts were viable was tricky.

But in C & D, market maps reveal several flourishing models (blue dots) bounding spaces without competitors. If a new model enters a region in C (red circle) and offers the indicated and other features that create value (through analysis not shown), it may by design enter a price gap (D). By interpolation, we know buyers will accept its specifications and price. It then has open market space for both, thereby not so much finding as creating its niche.

#hypernomics #markets #innovation #sales #technology

Problem? What Problem?

A mathematical problem should be difficult to entice us, yet not completely inaccessible. It should be a guidepost on the mazy paths to hidden truths. – David Hilbert

In a space-limited outdoor diner we visited a while ago, we observed the seating arrangement in A. They had two tables for two and ten for four. Seven of the four-place tables had parties of two. So, I wondered – is the setup they had the best for the crowd they faced?

A report I found (see below) noted that restaurant parties of two outnumber four-person parties by over two to one. On average, there should be more tables set up for couples than for larger groups.

But the average condition may not be the usual one. Or the one they faced.

What to do?

Suppose the four left-most tables were modular. The establishment could separate them into eight two-place setups. Then they could seat all seven of their two-person parties and put a two-top in storage. Their capacity would go down by two (at least temporarily), but, in the case shown, occupancy could go up by 30%, as we see in B.

Restaurants make money through occupancy, not capacity. It’s important to know what problem you need to solve.

#sales #demand #restaurants #business #success #management #problemsolving

Restaurant Math – Thin Odds

You spend your life waiting for a moment that just don’t come/Well, don’t waste your time waiting – Bruce Springsteen, Badlands

You know the feeling you get when you walk up to a roulette wheel in a casino, place a $100 on 00, it comes up, you win $3,500, and then you let it ride on 00, hit it again, and walk out with $122,500? No? Me either.

The reason I don’t is that while it’s possible to come up with that combination, the chance of that happening on a 38-pocket wheel is 1/38 * 1/38 = 1/1,444 = 0.00069, about 7 times in 10,000 tries.

But that is more than twice as likely as the probability of a restaurant result I recently witnessed.

As we left a brewery, it had four open tables; each sat eight, B. Four parties waited, C, held in place by their policy not to seat parties of four or fewer in tables for eight. But, the chance of filling them up according to their plan and the data, A, is 0.13^4 = 0.00028, less than half that of our roulette gambit.

Meanwhile, those people stayed hungry. They and the restaurant both suffered.

We are, all of us, always playing games of chance. It pays to know the odds. Anybody up for blackjack?

#business #success #management #probability #sales #restaurant

Steep Learning Curves

A 2016 EPA paper called “Cost Reduction through Learning in Manufacturing Industries and the Manufacture of Mobile Sources” estimated automobile learning curves at 84% to 88%.

Some think “steep learning curves” are a bad thing. Used in their first sense, i.e., how quickly someone learns, it’s the opposite. Learning or experience curves measure time reductions to do a task as repetitions of it double, as percentages. If it took you 10 hours to do a job the 1st time you did it, 8.4 hours the 2nd and 84% of 8.4 hours or 7.1 hours the 4th time, you’re on an 84% learning curve. If you took 10 hours for the 1st job and 8.8 hours for the 2nd one, and 88% of 8.8 hours or 7.7 hours for the 4th, an 88% curve described your experience.

Our 1981 auto industry work found that Product Demand fell at the equivalent of an 87.2% curve. As shown below, eventually, a flatter 88% learning curve for a car could intersect its Product Demand Curve. Then, production ceases, as its cost exceeds its sustainable price.

A steeper cost curve of 84% never approaches the Product Demand Curve; instead, it diverges from it. In such cases, Demand Frontiers limit sales.

Moral of the story: Steep learning curves are good.

#innovation #learningcurve #sales #steeplearningcurve

Solve Profit First

Suppliers make products and see what markets will bear for them.  That’s precisely backward.

Instead, we can solve for profit potential first and discover product specifications second.

Suppose a market has products for which there are particular quantities, and prices demanded, as shown by the red dots.  We want to avoid competition, so we choose a Target Price, 1, that exploits a price gap.  Given a Demand Frontier, this sets a quantity limit, 2.

With some work (not shown), we find the market supports Features A & B with a green Value Surface (supportable prices based on those features), and that there’s an area of interest with no competition.  Linked to that region are the costs for 1 and 200 units of our new product.  If we constrain the problem (orange planes), we form an enclosure.

We then run Financial Catscans through this region.  Much like brain scans, they are virtual market section cuts.  At the optimum, we solve for the specs of Features A (3) and B (4), and the per-unit profit (5).  Per unit profit (5) times the demand limit quantity (2) yields max potential profit.

In the process, we’ve solved a 4D problem (Feature A, Feature B, Price, Quantity) from a 1D goal (profit).

#innovation #price #value #markets #profit #sales #manangement